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Ḥākimiyyah (Lawgiving)

The very first Khārijites expelled the Prophet’s Companions from Islām accusing them of not judging by Allāh’s law, exaggerating in this matter and basing their innovated religion around it. They later split into factions with varying degrees of extremism in takfīr and terrorism performed in the name of ‘jihād’ and ‘enjoining the good and prohibiting the evil’. In the 20 century, Abū Aʿlā Mawdūdī (1979) gave a faulty, narrow, political interpretation of the Muslim’s declaration, “There is no deity worthy of worship but Allāh” and presented it essentially as “There is no lawgiver and sovereign but Allāh” and he coined the term ‘al-ḥākimiyyah’, being the first to use it. He distorted the message and call of the Prophets and claimed that they came to snatch political authority from the tyrants and oppressors and that this is the obligation upon all ‘Islāmic movements’ today, upon the mistaken notion that the greatest foundation of divinity is political authority (sulṭah), an idea bearing similarity to the Shīʿite imamate concept. The Egyptian writer, Sayyid Quṭb (1966) took this basic concept and developed it into a fully developed doctrine and methodology weaving it into his commentary on the Qurʾān, al-Ẓilāl. It was later extracted and published separately as Milestones and this became a manifesto for Takfīrī-Jihādī movements in the latter part of the 20 century. Quṭb’s writings led to the doctrines of takfīr and ḥakimiyyah spreading amongst prison inmates in Egypt during the 1960s and later forming the basis of Takfīrī jamāʿāt in Egypt. These ideas spread further during the Afghānī Jihād and many were nurtured upon the writings of Quṭb and Mawdūdī both prior and during the Jihād. They include figures such as Ayman al-Zawāhirī, Usāmah bin Lādin and others. During the 1980s and 1990s concerted efforts were made to spread this idea within the ranks of Salafīs and a group of individuals played an instrumental role in this. They include Muḥammad Quṭb (Sayyid Quṭb’s brother), Muḥammad Surūr, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿAbd al-Khāliq, Ṣalāḥ al-Ṣāwī, Abū Muḥammad al-Maqdisī amongst others. They took the basic Quṭbo-Mawdūdian Takfīrī-Khārijite concepts and dressed them with the cloak of Salafism, seeking thereby to win recruits into their cliques and organisations to help further their goals and agendas for the Gulf countries. From the mid-1990s onwards the Salafī scholars began to refute and expose their attempts to distort Islām and enter their extremism into the ranks of the Salafīs. Western academics who speak of Salafī-Jihādists and classify Salafism into quetists, politicos and violent jihādīs are really victims of the propaganda of the Khārijites and in their research they draw from the Khārijite literature in which the Quṭbo-Mawdūdian doctrine is clothed with Salafism. Being ignorant and ill-informed, they obviously cannot penetrate and see through the propaganda. The Khārijites exaggerate in al-ḥākimiyyah and make it the central pillar of their religion. On its basis do they make takfīr and lay down all their laws pertaining to jihād, and loyalty and disownment.

 

Takfīr (Excommunication)
Ḥākimiyyah (Lawgiving)
Khurūj (Revolution)
Walaʾ & Barāʾ (Loyalty and Disownment)
Jihād (War)
Imāmah & Khilāfah (Leadership & State)
Irhāb (Terrorism) & Plunder



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